Valerie Jenness – Hate Crimes – Britannica
Valerie Jenness on Hate Crime – Harassment, intimidation, or physical violence that is motivated by a bias against characteristics of the victim considered integral to his social identity, such as his race, ethnicity, or religion. Some relatively broad hate-crime laws also include sexual orientation and mental or physical disability among the characteristics that define a hate crime. The concept of hate crime emerged in the United States in the late 1970s.
By the end of the 20th century, laws mandating additional penalties for bias-motivated crimes had been passed by the federal government and by most U.S. states. (Unlike many broader state laws, the federal law allowed for the prosecution of hate crimes motivated only by the colour, race, religion, or national origin of the victim.) Increasingly, criminal conduct motivated by bigotry came to be regarded as substantially different from, and in some respects more pernicious than, other kinds of crime.